Start by opening GenX. Load the reflectivity plug-in by going to the menu Settings - Plug-ins - Load - Reflectivity. Two new tabs will appear in the lower right section of the window, Sample and Simulations. This is where we will define our sample later.

Load the data by clicking on the folder icon the data tab (leftmost splitter window). Remember that a data set has
to be marked in the list below. If you started fresh the data set will have the name Data 0.
Download the file `xray-tutorial.dat`

. In the file dialog choose
the downloaded file.The data should appear in the plot on the right, tab Data. Change the y-scale to logarithmic by right clicking on
the plot and choose y-scale - log. If you would like to inspect the data values click on the tab View in the left part
of the window. In the top of that tab there is a choice box, choose your data set. All the data in the data set will
appear in the grid below. Note that there are 6 columns: x_raw, y_raw, Error_raw, x, y, Error.
The one ending with raw is the loaded data. The other 3 can be changed by transformations given in the
calculations dialog. See the neutron tutorial for more information about transformations of data.

Time to create the sample! Click on the Sample tab. The data we just loaded comes from the a multilayer with the structure: MgO/Fe 4Å/Pt 39Å/XXÅ/Pt XXÅ?*20

Now this structure should be defined in GenX. Start by adding two stacks, second icon on the toolbar in the Sample tab. Give them the names buffer and ML. Then add layers, first button, with parameters shown in the screen shot below. You edit the values by double clicking on the row. If you become insecure about what units or what the parameters mean there is an on board under the menu Misc - Models Help. For this example choose the interdiff model in the frame that appears.

When the sample is defined and the data loaded, lets simulate the structure to see what happens. Press the yellow lightning on the main toolbar, F9 works as well. A red curve representing the simulated data will appear in the data plot.

In order to make the fitting more effective it can be advantageous to couple parameters. One way is to constrain interdependent parameters another way is to re-express the parameters so that information easily obtained from the diffraction pattern is used, for example the bilayer thickness of a multilayer. Under the tab simulations exists the possibility to express special commands that couple parameters before they are simulated. First create a new parameter by clicking the blue nut on the toolbar. And define the custom parameter (cp) Lambda as shown below.

Next, choose your data set and press the green plus to add a new command. Press simulate to update the model.

The command sets the thickness of the Pt in the multilayer to the bilayer thickness minus the Fe thickness.

First go to the Grid tab in the lower part of the window. To define a parameter right click on the leftmost cell. A menu will appear where the parameters you can fit appear.

It is important that the cell is not in edit mode (a blinking marker). The cell should only be marked (a bold border around the cell). Alternatively an unmarked cell can be right clicked. Then its only to continue to fill all parameter that should be fitted. Note that the custom parameter we defined earlier is found in the list. Continue to fill the list so it looks like the screenshot below. In total we will fit 14 parameters.

Warning

Do not try to fit the scattering length since the imaginary part of the scattering length will be remove. GenX only fits real valued parameters. Also the parameters Layers and Stacks in the Layer and Stack objects should under no circumstances be fitted.

The first column defines which parameter should be fitted. The second column, value , sets the start value and also serves as output for the best-so-far value. The Fit column determines whether or not the parameter will be refined, if not checked the parameter will not be varied. The Max and Min columns sets the maximum and minimum allowed values the parameters are allowed to take. If the user, you, sets a Value of one parameter outside max and min the Value cell will become red. The last column error displays the errorbar from the fit, more about that later.

The fit is started by clicking the green horizontal arrow in the toolbar. But first be sure that you have simulated the model. When the fit is starting have a look at the status bar which will give you information about the progress of the fit.

During the fit there are mainly three different tabs that are interesting. Firstly, the data tab that shows the data this is the most understandable plot. Secondly, the FOM folder this shows the Figure of Merit as a function of the generations. When this has flattened out there will be little improvement of the fit. Which FOM to choose is very problem dependent, I personally prefer to the absolute log FOM which happen to the default one also. You can change the FOM function if you go to the menu Settings-Optimizer. The last tab that is updated during a fit is the Pars tab, see below.

This can be a bit difficult to understand but is very good to study the convergence of the population. It shows the population spread (blue bars) for each parameter. The x-axis is then the parameter and the y-axis is the normalized parameter value (the parameter minus the minimum allowed value divided the max - min span). The little red dot is the current best value. So it is save to assume that there will be NO more improvement when the blue bars are very small. It is also useful to keep an eye on if a parameter wants to go to a limit, then it might be a good idea to change the boundaries, within physically reasonable values.

The fit is halted by pressing the stop button, not so difficult. It can take some time before the system responds! Depending on the how demanding the calculations are. Then a dialog pops up asking whether or to update the gird values with the fitted ones, see below.

If you for some reason wants to continue the fit click on the circular arrow next to the stop button. This will resume the fit from the current point. If you on the other hand press the straight arrow which we used to start fitting the fit will be reinitialized and everything will be started from the beginning.

Let’s hope that the fit you got looked good. The FOM should be below 0.1, i.e., 8e-2. The first thing we want to do after we got a god fit is to study the errorbars on the values. Click on the calculate errorbar button on the toolbar, see below.

After a couple of seconds the Error column in the grid should be populated with errors. The values represent the (delta_neg, delta_pos) of the values. The errors are calculated as an (default) 5% increase in the optimal FOM. In order to get as good estimate in a multi-dimensional fit GenX logs all the parameter evaluations and uses these to find the min and max values corresponding to the increase. The level can be changed in the menu Settings-Optimizer.

Warning

This is not a strictly a valid statistical estimation. Most x-ray data does not have valid errorbars and are swamped with systematic error. That is the systematic errors are dominating. Therefore it is usually hard to fit x-ray reflectivity with a Chi2 criteria where we actually can calculate valid errorbars. This will be included in GenX in the future. However, to my knowledge this procedure gives a pretty good estimate on the error, alas without a confidence interval.

If you want to have a closer look at the data that produced the errorbars. Click on the FOM scans tab. Then right click on the parameter number, usually a gray, in the column before the parameter name. Choose project FOM in the pop-up menu. The screen should look like the one below.

As before the red dot represents the best value of that parameter. And the red line shows the errorbar limit. All the blue dots, quite many, shows all the evaluated FOM. Note that this is a projection of all the evaluated FOM down to one parameter axis.

If you on the other hand wants to have a line scan choose a parameter as above and right click on the label (number furthest right in the grid). Choose the Scan FOM alternative from the pop-up menu. A dialog box will ask for the number of points. Then the parameter will be scanned and the FOM will be evaluated for all points. The result will be seen in the FOM tab. For an example see below.

The last little check is to observe the electron density/scattering length density plot. It resides in the SLD tab. This shows you the real and imaginary part of the scattering length. In order to update the simulation button has to be pressed. This is good to check if layers disappear, try to find the bottom Fe seed layer between the MgO substrate and the Pt buffer.

Naturally, all the default plots can be printed from File-Print. The plug-ins can not be plotted.

I hope this was enough information to get you up and running with GenX. Of course feedback is always welcome.